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Lee, G. (2018) No title available. Undergraduate theses, University of Chichester.

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Activity tracking devices are a form of wearable technology which are typically capable of tracking activity (e.g. total amount of steps taken) and other physiological information (e.g. heart rate) (Shih, Han, Poole, Rosson & Carroll, 2015). Activity tracking devices have been utilised in many different settings and a range of different purposes (Butler & Luebbers, 2016). Examples include pedometers, heart rate (HR) monitors, acti-graphs and fitness trackers (Alley et al., 2016). Firstly, pedometers are the oldest technological device used to provide feedback of; steps taken, distance covered, time spent in activity and/or an estimate of energy expenditure (Lubans, Morgan, & Tudor-Locke, 2009). Following this, HR monitors were introduced in the 1970s and resulted in a surge of public interest (Butler & Luebbers, 2016). This was a result of the HR monitors ability to aid an individual’s physical activity period ensuring that they are performing at their desired intensity level based off of their HR, meaning people did not have to monitor their pulse manually (Butler & Luebbers, 2016). Then came acti-graphs which are a small accelerometer based motion sensor which is usually worn on the waist and detects the intensity and duration of movement (Thomas, Nelson & Silverman, 2015). Finally, fitness trackers are devices which integrate a Global Positioning System (GPS) sensor, accelerometer and a HR monitor (Butler & Luebbers, 2016). These devices have increased in popularity amongst individuals, especially in those seeking to maintain or increase their physical activity (Schaefer, Ching, Breen & German, 2016). In the present study, physical activity is defined as any bodily movement initiated by the skeletal muscles which result in a rise in metabolic rate over resting energy expenditure (Allender, Cowburn & Foster, 2006).
Technology is evolving and activity trackers are currently being produced and modified in an attempt to motivate all ages to be physically active and offer the incentive to elevating the health and fitness of an individual (Fritz, Murphy & Zimmermann, 2014). An activity tracker can now provide its user with on screen data such as their HR, steps taken and calories burned (Rheingans, Cikit, & Ernst, 2016). This monitoring process is fundamental when setting appropriate motivational goals to achieve. Instead of trying to increase their step count by a vague amount, the population who own an activity tracker can now specifically increase their daily walk by 3500 steps and then monitor the success of this goal throughout the day (Karapanos, Gouveia, Hassenzahl & Forlizzi, 2016). Furthermore, activity trackers are also enlisting awards for when a goal is achieved and promote competition within peer groups (Kerner & Goodyear, 2017). These awards and comparisons increase a person’s motivation to achieve a high level of effort (Locke & Latham, 2002).
It has been mentioned that children and adolescents are more inclined to be engaged if fitness devices, such as those outlined above, are included within physical activities (Chung, Skinner, Hasty, & Perrin, 2016; Kerner & Goodyear, 2017). There is a current need for more field based study into Physical Education (PE) and activity levels in order to increase long term persistence in physical activity (Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2007). In addition, there is limited previous research focusing on the adoption of PA trackers dependent of gender (Shih et al., 2015). However, the increase in availability of monitoring technology results in there being a possibility for their use in further field-based studies or interventions designed at promoting physical activity in the current population (Lee, 2013). Therefore, the predominant focus of this study is centred around the impact of activity trackers within a school setting, specifically focusing on PE lessons.

Publication Type: Theses (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: BA (Hons) Physical Education and Sport Coaching
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV201 Physical education and training
L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: Academic Areas > Institute of Sport > Area > Physical Education
Student Research > Undergraduate
Depositing User: Ann Jones
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2019 12:16
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2019 12:16

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