No title available

Howarth, R. (2018) No title available. Undergraduate theses, University of Chichester.

[thumbnail of Ryan Howarth.pdf] Text
Ryan Howarth.pdf - Submitted Version
Restricted to Registered users only
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (2MB)


Introduction: Previous focus of attention (FoA) research found that adopting an external distal focus, decreases the effect on movement outcomes (EoMO) associated with dynamic balance (DB) (Wulf, 2013). However, the majority of DB research has been done statically with equipment providing the perturbations. The EoMO for dynamic gait balance (DGB) has yet to be studied. It is thought that FoA on DGB has a higher practical application than DB to both clinical and sporting settings (Ducharme & Wu, 2015). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how FoA, impacts the EoMO for DGB on a balance beam test (BBT). It was hypothesized that an external distal FoA would significantly reduce arm displacement and postural sway, on a BBT. Method: Six male novice sport students (Age 21 ± 1 years, height 180.3 ± 2.7cm, mass 72.2 ± 7.8kg) participated in this study. After an initial familiarization, each subject then completed each FoA condition in a cross-over design. The testing phase consisted of ten trials, where participants completed a BBT, entailing of walking from one end, turning in a 40cm area and walking back. The focuses were: control, internal (focus of keeping a straight posture and minimizing movement of their arms), external proximal (focus on the beam) and external distal (focus on keeping a marked location 2.5m ahead level). Results: a repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences within subjects between roll (p = 0.001), yaw (p = 0.001), left arm displacement (p = 0.001) and right arm displacement (p = 0.001). However, pitch was non-significant within subjects (p = 0.074). Post-hoc tests of a paired-samples t-test showed that an external proximal condition significantly reduced the EoMO of GB for all conditions (p ≤ 0.08). Conclusion: This study rejected the hypothesis as an external proximal FoA reduces the effective range of an external focus. This is thought to be due to DGB increases task difficulty, therefore, changes the integration of information from the visual sensory, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. Subsequently alluding that an external proximal FoA optimizes the balance systems by reducing the EoMO.

Publication Type: Theses (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure > GV557 Sports
Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Academic Areas > Institute of Sport > Area > Exercise Physiology
Student Research > Undergraduate
Depositing User: Ann Jones
Date Deposited: 01 Apr 2019 11:25
Last Modified: 01 Apr 2019 11:25

Actions (login required)

View Item
View Item
▲ Top

Our address

I’m looking for