The effect of temperature, gradient, and load carriage on oxygen consumption, posture, and gait characteristics

Hinde, Katrina, Lloyd, Ray, Low, Chris and Cooke, Carlton (2017) The effect of temperature, gradient, and load carriage on oxygen consumption, posture, and gait characteristics. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117 (3). pp. 417-430. ISSN 1439-6319

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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of load carriage in a range of temperatures to establish the interaction between cold exposure, the magnitude of change from unloaded to loaded walking and gradient. Methods Eleven participants (19–27  years) provided written informed consent before performing six randomly ordered walking trials in six temperatures (20, 10, 5, 0, −5, and −10 °C). Trials involved two unloaded walking bouts before and after loaded walking (18.2 kg) at 4 km · h−1, on 0 and 10% gradients in 4 min bouts. Results The change in absolute oxygen consumption (V̇O2) from the first unloaded bout to loaded walking was similar across all six temperatures. When repeating the second unloaded bout, V̇O2 at both −5 and −10 °C was greater compared to the first. At −10 °C, V̇O2 was increased from 1.60 ± 0.30 to 1.89 ± 0.51 L · min−1. Regardless of temperature, gradient had a greater effect on V̇O2 and heart rate (HR) than backpack load. HR was unaffected by temperature. Stride length (SL) decreased with decreasing temperature, but trunk forward lean was greater during cold exposure. Conclusion Decreased ambient temperature did not influence the magnitude of change in V̇O2 from unloaded to loaded walking. However, in cold temperatures, V̇O2 was significantly higher than in warm conditions. The increased V̇O2 in colder temperatures at the same exercise intensity is predicted to ultimately lead to earlier onset of fatigue and cessation of exercise. These results highlight the need to consider both appropriate clothing and fitness during cold exposure.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Hinde, K., Lloyd, R., Low, C. et al. The effect of temperature, gradient, and load carriage on oxygen consumption, posture, and gait characteristics. European Journal Applied Physiology (2017) doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3531-7. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Load carriage, cold exposure, oxygen consumption, stride length
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
Divisions: Departments > Sport and Exercise Sciences
Depositing User: Katrina Hinde
Date Deposited: 07 Feb 2019 15:32
Last Modified: 07 Feb 2019 15:32
URI: http://eprints.chi.ac.uk/id/eprint/4114

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