Expectancy effects in netball: The impact of an opponent’s pre-game non-verbal communication on female netball players.

Payne, Victoria (2017) Expectancy effects in netball: The impact of an opponent’s pre-game non-verbal communication on female netball players. Undergraduate thesis, University of Chichester.

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Abstract

Introduction: In this study, we investigated the influence of a female’s body language on the observers’ expectancy formation and performance rating. Previous research has concluded that in a sporting context males experience an influence of expectancy effects on the way in which they process information (Buscombe et al., 2006). It is suggested by the selectivity model (Meyers-Levy, 1989) that females adopt a comprehensive information processing strategy which attends to all available cues, cues are treated equally and this method is effective at de-coding non-verbal communication. In comparison, the way in which males tend to process information is by utilising a schema-driven processing method which is less accurate and determined by previous experiences rather than present information. Therefore, it is suggested that due to the difference between gender, females will not be influenced by the effect of expectancies due to the selectivity model and their increased motivation to create informed impressions.
Method: Forty-two competitive netball players viewed two videos of a warm-up and open netball play, one of which was not manipulated, the other had been manipulated to present either positive, negative or neutral body language during the warm-up. As the netball player was shooting during the warm-up the top of the post and therefore the outcome of the shot was not seen, thus ensuring that the observers’ impression was not influenced. The warm-up was followed by the same passage of open play in which the player who had been observed warming up, was the target player. The participants then rated the target player on impression formation, outcome expectation of intercepting the ball, performance rating and shooting accuracy.
Results An analysis of variance revealed that no expectation effect was present when the participants rated their impression of the target player and their expectation of interception. Contradicting findings were reported for performance and accuracy rating.
Conclusion: Although no expectancy effect was seen in female impression formation and expectancy rating, further research must be conducted with both males and females in the same context to provide a direction comparison between genders before a conclusion is drawn.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Departments > Sport and Exercise Sciences
Undergraduate Dissertations
Depositing User: Ann Jones
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2017 13:33
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2017 13:33
URI: http://eprints.chi.ac.uk/id/eprint/3095

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