A field based examination of golf chipping under pressure.

Yeoman, Beth (2017) A field based examination of golf chipping under pressure. Undergraduate thesis, University of Chichester.

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine the use of a single swing thought analogy in preventing skilled golfers from choking when chipping under pressure. The conscious processing hypothesis (CPH; Masters, 1993) suggests that when pressure increases, a skilled performer consciously controls automatic skills, resulting in a “choke” (Gucciardi & Dimmock, 2008). Using an analogy can prevent this process from occurring (Liao & Masters, 2001). Twenty skilled golfers (handicap M = 5.4, SD = 2.44) were randomly allocated to a control or an experimental group. All participants completed a chipping task in a low anxiety condition. Following this, the control group completed the same chipping task in a high anxiety condition. Anxiety was induced in line with the pressure manipulation used by Moore, Vine, Wilson and Freeman (2015). Participants in the experimental group formulated their own single swing thought analogy and were instructed to use this analogy when completing the chipping task in the high anxiety condition. An anxiety thermometer (Houtman & Bakker, 1989) was used to measure participant anxiety levels prior to the low anxiety and high anxiety conditions. Mixed Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant main effect of time of testing (F (1, 18) = 5.99, P = .025, ηp2 = 0.25). Post hoc comparisons indicted that the mean distance the ball finished from the hole in the low anxiety condition (M = 241, SD = 79.52) was significantly different from the mean distance the ball finished from the hole in the high anxiety condition (M = 198.25, SD = 69.466). There was no significant main effect of interaction between group and time of testing (F (1,18) = 1.725, P =.206, ηp2 = 0.87). Results also indicated that there was a significant difference in anxiety ratings in the low anxiety condition and anxiety ratings in the high anxiety condition (F (1,18) = 60.01, P = .001, ηp2 = 0.769). Post hoc comparisons indicated that the mean anxiety rating in the low anxiety condition (M = 17.35, SD = 19.68) was significantly different from the mean anxiety rating in the high anxiety condition (M = 48.75, SD = 20.512), demonstrating that anxiety was successfully induced. These results appear to suggest that the use of an analogy may not be an effective intervention for preventing skilled golfers from choking in a field environment, however, as previous literature has demonstrated its effectiveness, then further research needs to be conducted in the field to draw definitive conclusions.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Additional Information: BSc (Hons) Sport and Exercise Science
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Departments > Sport and Exercise Sciences
Undergraduate Dissertations
Depositing User: Ann Jones
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2017 14:37
Last Modified: 31 Oct 2017 14:37
URI: http://eprints.chi.ac.uk/id/eprint/3073

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