Practical applications of biomechanical principles in resistance training: neuromuscular factors and relationships

Lake, Jason P., Keogh, J W L and Swinton, P (2014) Practical applications of biomechanical principles in resistance training: neuromuscular factors and relationships. Journal of Fitness Research, 3 (1). pp. 19-32. ISSN 2201-5655

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Abstract

This paper is the second in our three part series examining how a variety of biomechanical principles and concepts
have direct relevance to the prescription of resistance training for the general and athletic populations as well as for
musculoskeletal injury rehabilitation. In this paper, we considered different neuromuscular characteristics of resistance
exercise. We started by defining the causes of motion, discussing force and Newton’s second law of linear motion. This
led to discussion of impulse, and how its relationship with momentum can be used to study force-time curves recorded
from different ground-based resistance exercises. This enables the sports biomechanist to derive movement velocity,
which enables study of the relationship between force and velocity, and we concluded that as the force required to
cause movement increases the velocity of movement must decrease. This relationship is critical because it enables
strength and conditioning coaches and exercise professionals to manipulate resistance-training loads to maximise
training gains for sports performance. We described representative force-time curves from basic human movements
to provide a foundation for discussion about how different resistance-training gains can be achieved. This focused on
exercise technique, including use of the stretch-shortening cycle, magnitude of load, ballistic resistance exercise, and
elastic band and chain resistance (although elements of this will receive greater attention in our final article). Finally, we
defined and explained the concept of mechanical work and power output, examining the effect that load has on power
output by considering the load-power relationships of different common resistance exercises. We hope that exercise
professionals will benefit from this knowledge of applied resistance training biomechanics. Specifically, we feel that
the take home message of this article is that resistance exercise load and technique can be manipulated to maximise
resistance-training gains, and that this can be particularly useful for athletes trying to improve sporting performance.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Departments > Sport and Exercise Sciences
Depositing User: Jason Lake
Date Deposited: 13 Mar 2015 13:04
Last Modified: 14 Aug 2017 13:04
URI: http://eprints.chi.ac.uk/id/eprint/1350

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